Chapter 9
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Databases: Creating Information from Data

Author Additions to Chapter 9

Applications and Competencies


Websites That Expand on Chapter 9's Knowledge


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Boolean Searching

Boolean Searching. A well explained site, even includes advance Boolean Searching.

Data Flow Diagraming

Kozar, K. (1997). The Technique of Data Flow Diagramming. A detailed guide. of data flow diagramming techniques. This site may be over a decade old, but the information is still current.


Data Mining &Warehouses

Silver,Michael; Sakata, Taikil; Su, Hua-Ching; Herman, Charles; Dolins,Steven B.; & O’Shea Michael J. (2001). Case Study: How to Apply Data Mining Techniques in a Healthcare Data Warehouse. Journal of Healthcare Information Management, 15(2), 155-164. Technical at first, but read on to see the interesting discovery.

Reed, M. (2002). A Definition of Data Warehousing. An easily read and understood definition.

Thearling, K. (1998). Data Mining and Privacy: A conflict in the making? A white paper discussing the issue. AT the top of that page is a link to a tutorial about data mining, has some excellent information that would be helpful in explaining it.

Fayyad, U., Piatetsky-Shapiro, G., & Smyth, P. (1996). From Data Mining to Knowledge Discovery in Databases. American Association for Artificial Intelligence, Fall, 37-54. Although old, some very basic information and real world information. Principles in this area don't change.

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Data Modeling

Data Modeling Overview. Continue through all these sections for a good explanation. Use the links in the text itself, the ones in the right hand column go through a screen telling you that these are in the archives.


Database Models.

Database Models. Good description with diagrams of the various models, e.g flat, hierarchical etc.

Database Models. A thorough explanation of all of the types.


Database Dictionary

A database dictionary. In the definition for each term, links to the definition for other terms is provided. A valuable asset

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Database Introduction

A very easily read piece with two sections, database basics and database design. Great information, applicable to any database. If you're looking for a nice, slow approach to learning databases, choose Databasics. If, on the other hand, you want to dive right  into the nitty gritty of database design, try the companion series of articles, Databases from Scratch.


Databases to Download

Many choices here including hospital compare and nursing homes. Select which medicare database to download. Can be downloaded as an Access file.

This is part of Access tutorials. Includes countries database in Access 97 or 2000. Has information such as population, area, and if a member of the UN. Will open in later versions of Access including 2007. In 2010 you will need to click on "Enable Content."

US Census Bureau. Quick, easy access to facts about people, business, and geography. Select a state, or a county within that state, then data in which you are interested. When the table is in view, scroll to the bottom to download the file as an Excel spreadsheet. It can also be downloaded in a delimited format, by selecting the data, copying it from the Web page (Ctrl+C) and pasting (Ctrl+V) it into Notepad. (Open Notepad from the Start Button>All Programs>Accessories>Notepad. If using Windows 7 download from Windows Live Essentials) They are tab delimited. Links above will help you to import to Access)

US Census and Population. From the US government. Scroll down to the bottom of the page for Data Ferret. I have NOT used this tool, but it could be used to create data from existing census data to download for use in many different packages including Excel and statistical packages.

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Normalizing Data

Kent, William (1982.) A Simple Guide to Five Normal Forms in Relational Database Theory. The principles of data normalization do NOT change.

Normalizing Data. Good explanation of this process through the sixth form.

OBrian, Sam (2011). The Basics of Database Normalization. This site also has some links to other information about databases.

How to Normalize Your Data

Secondary Data Use

Transforming healthcare through secondary use of health data. A 40 page 2009 report by Price-Waterhouse Coopers. You may need to register name etc., but the report is free. Presents an excellent case for secondary data use, includes guidelines. (Added Dec 10, 2009)

Secondary use of data—striking a balance.

Research using Secondary Data Sources (2004, Dec 21). Some pros and cons.

AMIA report (2007). Toward a National Framework for the Secondary Use of Health Data. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association Jan-Feb; 14(1): 1–9

Enhanced Protections for Uses of Health Data: A Stewardship Framework for “Secondary Uses” of Electronically Collected and Transmitted Health Data (2007, Dec 19). Report to the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services from the National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics.

Joelving, F. (2010, February 10). Who owns your cells? New book tackles thorny issue [Book Review]. Presents some interesting information, see what you thin about this issues. =Feed%3Areuters%2FhealthNews%28News%2FUS%2FHealthNews%29

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Tutorials Access

None of these tutorials teaches how to name objects, i.e. precede every object with a code name indicating the type of object, e.g. "tbl" for table, "qry" for query etc. But still helpful.

Great Tutorials for Access from Geek Girls. Will open in later versions of Access including 2007. In 2010 you will have to click on "Enable Content."

Allen Browne's tips for Microsoft Access. This page covers all versions of Access. In short pieces it explains items with which you want help. Includes a free - 8 part series (PDF), plus 5 videos by Crystal (Access MVP). Well worth perusing no matter what your experience is with Access, from absolute novice to expert programmer.

Access Lots of illustrations to make understanding easy. The 2007 version is similar enough to 2010 that the learning is still helpful.
2007 -
2000 -

Learn Access. A series of tutorials. I have looked at a few of these, found an error in working with tables on slide 3. It is NOT necessary to save record changes in a table. As soon as you leave the field, the change is saved. What one has to save in Access is objects that you create in design mode such as a table, form, query, or report. Changes to data are automatically saved. In the interactives, on my computer, the videos would only play in IE and Chrome, not in Firefox. If you want to use any of these features the extras are worth dowloading and saving or printing for quick reference.


Spreadsheet or Database

Resources for this topic

Author information about

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Applications and Competencies

The table for number 1


Websites from the Text in Chapter 9

For database to download see above

Zoho Creator


Websites from the Reference List in Chapter 9

Barry, D. (2010). Object-oriented database management system
(OODBMS). Retrieved June 23, 2010, from

Healthcare Data Management. (2010, May 1). Mining ICU
data for early-warning signs. Retrieved April 27, 2010, from

Microsoft. (2010a). Description of normalization. Retrieved April 26, 2010, from

Microsoft. (2010b). Using Access or Excel to manage your data. Retrieved April 28, 2010, from

StatSoft Inc. (2010). Introduction to SQL. Retrieved April 27, 2010, from

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Created November 21, 2011

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