Chapter 17
home glossary index



The Informatics Discipline

Author Additions to Chapter 17


Websites That Expand on Chapter 17's Knowledge


Go to the top of the page

Careers in Nursing Informatics

Core Content for the Subspecialty of Clinical Informatics (2009). A White paper from the Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association.

2011 HIMSS Nursing Informatics Workforce Survey (URL updated 8/20/13)



Guidelines for arranging a Computer Workstation - 10 steps for users. Just as the title says, this site has 10 steps with links to more information on some of the topics.

Workplace Ergonomics Tools. Links to great information such as tips for using laptops, tips for alleviating pain when using a computer, and many evaluation tools for items such as keyboards and mouse.. In short, a handbook for ergonomics for computers and other items.

Canon, James. How To Adjust Your Office Chair | 6 Easy Steps. 2014. Illustrations and descriptions of ways to make your office chair more ergonical.

Informatics Organizations

ANI (Alliance for Nursing Informatics). This organization is composed of members of many different nursing informatics groups. Go to their page to find a local group.

American Nursing Informatics Association (ANIA) (Merged with CARING (Capital Area Round Table in Nursing Informatics).

AMIA (American Medical Informatics Association)

HIMSS (Health Information Management Systems Society) page on nursing informatics.

IMIA (International Medical Informatics Association.

Nursing Informatics Working Group (NWIG) of the American Medical Informatics Association.

Go to the top of the page

Informatics Theories

Understanding and Performance. An excellent description of the data, information, knowledge, wisdom theory behind informatics.

Adult Learning Theory

Andragogy and Technology: Integrating Adult Learning Theory As We Teach With Technology. A discussion of the principles of adult learning theory which can be used in the design of technology-based instruction to make it more effective.

Change Theories

Kaminski, June. (2011). Theory applied to informatics – Lewin’s Change Theory. Canadian Journal of Nursing Informatics (6)1.

Kritsonis, Alicia. (2004-5).Comparison of Change Theories. International Journal of Scholarly academic Intellectual Diversity 8(1).,%20Alicia%

Lippit's Change Theory. Emphasizes that this theory builds on Lewin's theory.

Roger's Theory of Diffusion and Innovation. An important part of the change process.

Chaos Theory

Chaos Theory. Although somewhat complex, this article does explain chaos theory.

Chaos Theory from Wikipedia.

Lorenz, Edward N. (1972). Predictability: Does the Flap of a Butterfly's Wings in Brazil set off a Tornado in Texas. Address tothe American Association for the Advancement of Science, December 29, 1972 that gave the name "Butterfly Theory" to Chaos Theory. Reprinted here in full.


Go to the top of the page

Cognitive Science & Theories

Keep in mind that how a person processes information will affect how they interact with a system. Asking a user to remember vital facts between screens is a recipe for errors.

Cognitive Science. Excellent, down to earth description.

Patel, Vimia L. & Kaufman, David R. (1998). Medical Informatics and the Science of Cognition. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association. 5(6): 493–502. You may want to click on the arrow at the end of the black surrounding a heading that says other sections and go to Cognitive Science and Medical Informatics. Forget that this is medicine oriented, you could easily substitute nursing anyplace it says medicine.

Fritscher, Lisa. Cognitive Theory. A definition with links to many of the different cognitive theories.

Cognitive learning theories. A brief description with links to different ones. Take the time to investigate accommodation/assimilation and constructivism.

Content Change Object Managment (CCOW)

A discussion of CCOW in healthcare informatics.

Context Managment

Discussion of context management with refereces to CCOW.

General Systems Theory

General Systems Theory can apply to many areas in nursing, but is very evident in informatics.

General Systems Theory from Wikipedia

General Systems Theory. A table listing many of the characteristics of the theory.

O'Rouke, Victor (date uncertain, after 2005).GST: A SIMPLIFIED PARADIGM FOR BUSINESS. Don't let the word "business" put you off, this is a good article that starts with the history of systems theory and has some excellent points applicable to healthcare agencies and any EHR.

Go to the top of the page

Informatics Overview

Informatics Core: Science of Informatics. Page has link to definitions of the various types of informatics.

Hersh, William (2009, May 15). A stimulus to define informatics and health information technology. BioMed Central. Excellent definition of informatics.

Roles in Nursing Informatics

See Table 17-4 on page 309 in the textbook.

2010 ANCC Role Delineation Study: Informatics Nurses. From a study released in March 2011.

AONE's (American Organization of Nurse Executives) position paper on the Nursing Informatics Executive Leader.

Go to the top of the page

Usability in Informatics

There is a great deal of overlap with usability and the design process in the system life cycle. Check out that section.

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has released guidance on NISTIR 7804 "Technical Evaluation, Testing and Validation of the Usability of Electronic Health Records". It is a 112 page document that provides guidance for this topic which is becoming of greater importance as unintended consequences of EMRs surface. The link below provides links to the above report, as well as links to an NIST EHR Usability Wiki (called TWicki) on which anyone can register, read and contribute to this ever important topic.

Ambler, S. (2000). User Interface Design: Tips and Techniques. This 16 page introduces the economics of a good user interface. Details 20 items that should be considered in design. Discusses prototyping and interface flow diagrams. The summary presents bulleted points for general guidelines, screen design, and prototyping. These principles never change.

Head, A. J. (2003). Personas: Setting the Stage for Building Usable Information Sites. This article describes how to create a persona, or composite person, to use when designing Web sites. This same approach could be used in designing user interfaces in information systems.

Middleton B, Bloomrosen M, Dente MA, et al. Enhancing patient safety and quality of care by improving the usability of electronic health record systems: recommendations from AMIA. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association : JAMIA. Jun 2013;20(e1):e2-8. Article developed by a task force from academic settings and EHR vendors. Great information.

Usability Testing. Wikipedia page on this - some really good information here including goals, what it is, and what it is not. What is missing from this otherwise excellent description is that the tester of anyone else must NOT communicate with the testee in any way during the test. Remember, the developer will not be there under real conditions. It is always puzzling that there is never money or time for user testing, but always money and time to fix the mistakes caused by skipping this vital step.

Nielsen, Jakob, Ten Usability Heuristics. Ten general rules of thumb for usability in computer interfaces.

Go to the top of the page

Websites from the Text in Chapter 17

From Peters, L. A. (2004, August). Web site usability. (No longer available at this URL)

Alliance for Nursing Informatics

Go to the top of the page

Websites from the Reference List in Chapter 17

Alliance for Nursing Informatics. (2010). About ANI. Retrieved August 3, 2010, from

American Association of Colleges of Nursing. (2008). The essentials of baccalaureate education for professional nursing practice. Retrieved August 3, 2010, from

American Health Information Management Association. (2010). AHIMA facts. Retrieved August 3, 2010, from

American Nurses Credentialing Center. (2010). Informatics nursing certification eligibility. Retrieved August 1, 2010, from (No longer available at this URL)Instead see

Bass, A. (2003, June 1). Health-care IT: A big rollout bust. CIO. Retrieved from

British Computer Society. (2010). About BCS – The Chartered Institute for IT. Retrieved August 3, 2010, from

Clark, D. (2009, May 6). Understanding and performance. Retrieved August 1, 2010, from

European Federation for Medical Informatics. (2007). EFMI WG NURSIE nursing informatics in Europe. Retrieved August 3, 2010, from (No longer available at this URL)

Gray, R. M. (2009). Entropy and information theory. New York, NY: Springer Verlag. Retrieved from (No longer available at this URL)Instead go to

Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society. (2010). About HIMSS. Retrieved August 3, 2010, from

Kauffman, S. A. (1991). Antichaos and adaptation. Scientific American, 265(2), 78–84. Retrieved from

National League for Nursing. (2008, May 29). NLN Board of Governors urges better preparation of nursing workforce to practice in 21st century, technology-rich health care environment. Retrieved August 3, 2010, from (No longer available at this URL)

Nightingale, F., & Goldie, S. M. (1997). Letters from the Crimea, 1854–1856. Retrieved from

Schneider, T. D. (2010, January 8). Information theory primer. Retrieved August 1, 2010, from (No longer available at this URL)

School of Mathematics and Statistics, St. Andrews University of Scotland. (2003). Florence Nightingale. Retrieved July 31,
2010, from

Smith, M. K. (2009, November 4). Kurt Lewin: Groups, experiential learning and action research. Retrieved August 1, 2010, from

Technology Informatics Guiding Education Reform. (2009). The TIGER initiative: Collaborating to integrate evidence and informatics into nursing practice and education: An executive summary. Retrieved January 24, 2011, from

Thagard, P. (2010, June 9). Cognitive science – The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy. Retrieved from

Wade, M., & Schneberger, S. (2005, October 13). Theories used in research: Socio-technical theory. Retrieved August 1, 2010, from

Go to the top of the page

Created January 23, 2012

home glossary index Home Glossary Contents of this page